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T64P1 Characteristics of Pterosaurs




para 1:

①The extinct flying reptiles called pterosaurs were the second group of animals (after insects) to evolve flight. ②Most pterosaurs were about the size of modern seagulls. ③A few were as small as sparrows, but some of the later species were the largest flying animals that have ever lived. ④In 1817 Theodore Von Soemmerring published the first description of a pterosaur fossil, and thinking that it was that of an unusual bat species, he drew his reconstruction with a very batlike posture and wing. ⑤His early reconstruction of a pterosaur has haunted the public and scientific perception of pterosaurs ever since. ⑥Soemmerring's reconstruction is understandable given that he was the first to try to describe a pterosaur, that few naturalists of the time accepted the idea of major groups of extinct animals, and that both pterosaurs' and bats' wings consist of a membrane supported by enormously elongated finger bones. ⑦Soemmerring showed his pterosaur with the laterally directed legs and reoriented feet of bats and with the wing membrane stretching from the arm and finger along the sides of the body and legs all the way to the ankle. ⑧The reconstruction also included a membrane stretching between the legs, similar to that in bats. ⑨Even though other scientists developed less batlike descriptions of pterosaurs in the late 1800s, the popular literature, and even some scientific literature, continued to describe pterosaurs as batlike into the 1980s.


haunt 萦绕


S认为翼龙和蝙蝠之间的相似性;


★1. In the discussion of Soemmerring in paragraph 1, why does the author mention that "few naturalists of the time accepted the idea of major groups of extinct animals"? 

C

□To support the position that Soemmerring was the first to recognizethe scientific significance of pterosaur fossils NE

□To suggest that Soemmerring's reconstruction of the pterosaur went against a commonly accepted position of naturalists at that time

□To help explain why it was reasonable for Soemmerring to think that pterosaurs were related to today's bats

□To indicate how little was known about pterosaurs before Soemmerring published his reconstruction


这一题非常好。

修辞目的考结构,也就是信息关系,答题不在于信息本身。

找它服务的对象,而不必在乎它说了什么。

 

2. According to paragraph1, Soemmerring believed that pterosaurs had all of the following features EXCEPT

□wings that wereattached to the sides of the body

□ wings without bones

□legs that were oriented laterally

□a membrane between the legs


para 2:

Bats perch by hanging upside down from treelimbs and roofs of caves. Though many are surprisingly agile climbers, bats are generally awkward when crawling on level surfaces. Did pterosaurs also hang upside down and avoid landing on the ground? Until recently, some paleontologists thought they did, but most scientists now agree that pterosaurs got around on the ground reasonably well. What is still uncertain is whether pterosaurs walked on all fours or just on their hind legs. Pterosaurs' ancestors were bipedal(two-footed) and used their tails to balance their forward-tilted trunks andheads. Early pterosaurs also had long tails and probably could have run on their hindlegs, certainly handy for ananimal with wings for forelimbs. These early pterosaurs, however, could have used their forelimbs for walking because their arm and handbones were only slightly enlarged-most of the wing was supported by the gigantic fourth finger.

科学家认为翼龙是陆地动物;


para 3:

Later pterosaurs are more enigmatic their arms and especially their hands seem too long to be used comfortably for walking, but their tails were tooshort to counterbalance their bodies if they walked just on their hindlegs. Birds also have short, stubby tails keletons, but they manage to walk quite well on their hindlegs. Birds manage this by angling the thighs forwardto get their feet under the body's center of gravity. They hold their thighs at this unstable angle withextensive hip and thigh muscles. Some researchers have suggested that pterosaurs' hipbones were too small to anchor extensive thigh-positioning muscles, but others have responded that pterosaurs' leg and foot bones are so strikingly birdlike that pterosaurs mustsurely have walked like birds. Recently, however, some pterosaur experts have concluded that a number of fossil trackways-trails of preserved footprints-were made by pterydactyloid pterosaurs, and these animals clearly walked on all four limbs.Perhaps some early pterosaurs walked on their hindlegs, but according to current evidence, most species probably walked on all fours. In any case, large pterosaurs, with eight-orten-meter wingspans and weighing as much as an adult human, do not seem likely candidates for a batlike existence confined to clambering about in trees and hanging upside down from branches.

四足着地运动;


7、What evidence is presented in paragraph 3 that at least some pterosaurs walked on all four oftheir limbs?

C

□The position oftheir feet relative to the body's center of gravity in some pterosaurs

□The considerable wing span and weight of some pterosaurs

□Fossil trackways left by some pterosaurs

□The shape of the leg bones and feet bones in some pterosaurs


para 4:

Pterosaurs also possessed some obvious adaptations for powered flight. They had largest ernums (breastbones) for attaching powerful flight muscles, well-developed shoulder bones to carry the body's weight in flight, and air-filled bones to lighten the skeleton. Some even had a furcula (a fused breastbone also found in birds), perhaps to flex like a spring and help raise the wings during the upstroke. How competent were they at flying? The original batlike reconstructions, along with their classification as reptiles, suggested to many earlier biologists that pterosaurs were only gliders. Biologists now, however, generally agree that pterosaurs were capable of powered, flapping flight. Indeed the shoulder joint is clearly specialized for the down-and-forward, up-and-back movement of normal flapping.

翼龙同时也有较强的飞行能力。


8. According to paragraph 4, what are two indicators that pterosaurs were capable of powered flight?

To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

AC

□Their shoulder bones allowed the wings to move in more than one direction. 最后一句

□Their furcula was separate rather than fused to the breastbone. 

□Their bones were filled with air rather than bone tissue. 第二句

□Their weight was primarily concentrated in the wing flight muscle. NE

 

3、The word "awkward" in the passage is closest in meaning to

□careful

□clumsy

□slow

□helpless

 

4、In paragraph 2, what evidence suggests that early pterosaurs walkedon their hind legs only?

□The arm and hand bones on early pterosaurs were enlarged.

□Thetailsofpterosaursmayhavebeenlongenoughtouseforbalance.Thetrunksandheads

□ofearlypterosaursmayhavebeentiltedforward.Thewingsofearlypterosaurswerelargely

□supported by a single finger. Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow

 

5、The word "strikingly" in the passage is closest in meaningto

□perfectly

□suspiciously

□remarkably

□elegantly

 

6、The word "strikingly" in the passage is closest in meaningto

□perfectly

□suspiciously

□remarkably

□elegantly

 

9. Look at the four squares ■that indicate the following sentence could beadded to the passage.

(Flying was thought to require more energy than cold-blooded reptiles were capable of generating).

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square ■ to add the sentence to the passage.


Pterosaurs also possessedsome obvious adaptations for powered flight. They had largester nums (breast bones) for attaching powerful flight muscles, well-developed shoulder bones to carry the body's weight in flight, and air-filled bones tolighten the skeleton. ■Some even had a furcula (a fused breastbonealso found in birds), perhaps to flex like a spring and help raise the wings during the upstroke. ■ How competent were they at flying? The original batlike reconstructions, along with their classification as reptiles, suggested to many earlier biologists that pterosaurs were only gliders. ■ Biologists now, however, generally agree that pterosaurs were capable of powered, flapping flight. ■Indeed the shoulder joint is clearly specialized for the down-and-forward, up-and-back movement of normal flapping.

  

10 

Soemmerring's description of the pterosaur has had a major impact on people's perception of the creature.


Answer Choices

While Soemmerring recognized certain similarities between pterosaurs and bats, he did not believe the two species were related. RE

In Soemmering's view, bats and pterosaurs had many features in common, including the way the wing was attached to the rest of the body. 一段

Other than birds, pterosaurs were the only species to have a fused breast bone that could bend when the forelimbs were raised or lowered. NE

Scientists long believed that, like bats pterosaurs lived in trees and caves. NE

While it seems likely that some early pterosaurs walked on two limbs and some later ones walked on four limbs, biologists remain uncertain about how many pterosaurs walked. 二段

Based on various skeletal features most biologists now believe that pterosaurs were actually capable of powered, flapping flight. 四段


【CBBBA CC AC C BEF】


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